Origin and evolution of Humans

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The origin and evolution of Humans

Neanderthal extinction

The Neanderthals became extinct around 40,000 years ago. This date, which is based on research published in Nature in 2014, is much earlier than previous estimates, and it was established through improved radiocarbon dating methods analyzing 40 sites from Spain to Russia..[1] Evidence for continued Neanderthal presence in the Iberian Peninsula at 37,000 years ago was published in 2017.

Hypotheses on the fate of the Neanderthals include violence from encroaching anatomically modern humans,[3] parasites and pathogens, competitive replacement,[4] competitive exclusion, extinction by interbreeding with early modern human populations,[5] natural catastrophes, and failure or inability to adapt to climate change. It is unlikely that any one of these hypotheses is sufficient on its own; rather, multiple factors probably contributed to the demise of an already low population. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal_extinction

The origin of the Homo sapiens

Several early hominins used fire and occupied much of Eurasia. Homo sapiens (sometimes also known as "modern humans") are thought to have diverged in Africa from an earlier hominin around 300,000 years ago, with the earliest fossil evidence of Homo sapiens also appearing around 300,000 years ago in Africa. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human#Rise_of_Homo_sapiens

Documentary about the earliest fossil evidence of Homo sapiens. La datation par thermoluminescence, plus fiable que le carbone 14, fait remonter leur origine à 300 000 ans: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-XUsBUDoB08

The origin of the Neanderthal

Disparu il y a plus de 40 000 ans, l’homme de Neandertal a peuplé pendant quelque 300,000 ans une large partie du continent eurasiatique, de l’Atlantique à la Sibérie. Majoritairement présents dans le nord-ouest de l'Europe actuelle.